اقتصاد مقاومتی و تجارت جهانی

مجله دو زبانه فارسی و انگلیسی

اقتصاد مقاومتی و تجارت جهانی

مجله دو زبانه فارسی و انگلیسی

Human Rights In France

سید احمد حسینی ماهینی | دوشنبه, ۱۱ دی ۱۳۹۶، ۰۶:۴۲ ب.ظ | ۰ نظر

 Human rights is the most basic night that every person enjoyes it just due to being humankind. This simple definition has important social and political consequences and repercussions for people and governments . 


According to the universal clarification of human rights and due to other 


international instruments, universally, inalienable, non-transferable, interminable seperation, non - discrimination and equality, unity and interweavings are the human rights features. So it pretains to every person who lives everywhere in worldwide, and nobody can be deprived it due to his race, nationality, gender and etc. All people should enjoy these rights equally and nobody is superior to others. These rights consist of natural rights or juridical rights which can be seen in national and international laws. Doctrine and human rights activists, in their activities in the fields of international law, international and regional institutions, government policies, and the activities of nongovernmental organizations, founded the private foundation and public policies in this area. In fact if the international community peacefully dialogue with a common moral language , this common moral language is called human rights. Still today the doctrine of human rights, express their theory suspectedly, and their discussions are more about nature and circumstances of the justjustification of human rights.

2 - Emergence of human rights after second world war

any of the basic ideas that fueled the civil rights movements, developed after the world war II and the Holocaust story, and reached its peak and was recognised with the ratification of the bill of rights by the united nations general assembly in Paris in 8491. In ancient world, the concept of human rights was not like today. But in ancient societies it was as detailed set of tasks, where concepts such as justice, political legitimacy, human flourishing which sought to achieve the human dignity, or well-being , regardless of the titles and concepts of human rights exist. Modern means of human rights in the early modern period and with European secularization of Judo - Christian morality concept was widened and expanded. In fact, the concept of human rights derived from natural rights. In natural law theory, the legislative power is limited objectively and rationally. According to this school of thoughts, human logic inspired the foundation of law by the nature, and in fact is part of medieval natural law tradition ; which have got modern concept by philosophers such as John Locke, Francis Hutchison, Jean Jacques Bvrlamaky , etc, in the Enlightenment perid. This drew more attentions of the international community in political discourse in America and French revolutions. Therefore and accordingly, the modern theory of human rights emerged during the last half of the twentieth century, and in this period social and political discourses were on the top of agenda of many nations of the world.

3 - The definition of human rights violation

When the government and its institutions or non-state entities , deny or violates the fundamental rights of individuals, including civil, political, cultural, social and economic rights, human rights violation has been occurred. Human rights violations include failure to comply with, and to prevent availing all human rights which have been proposed by international instruments.

9- violation of freedom of expression

Limitations on freedom of expression, and try the liberals are another human rights violations in France. Although freedom of the press was one of the first laws of third republic of France , which passed in 8118, but this law has not caused fully free press there, but always and especially in the past two decades there has been direct and indirect pressure on the media, the press, and the free thinkers. Roger Garaudy's trial is a proof to back up this assertion. Roger Garaudy , French writter and researcher, 's trial in the court was simply because of the promotion of ideas , writing a historical book, and posing documentry facts about the international Zionist and deny of Holocaust. In fact in France, a country that considers itself as the leading in freedom of expression and human rights, restrictions and penalties await those who talk about matters like questining the Holocaust. Question is why the French government dealt with double , why freedom of expression is recognized in some areas like Islam fighting , but the phenomenon has hit the Holocaust as a taboo, and why it prohibites any inquiry

and investigation in this field? In France, a law has passed which bans questioning the Holocaust. In this regard who dares to question the nature or scale of Holocaust, or intend to have a substantial research on this subject will be prosecuted and face a prison sentence and a fine.

5- violation of privacy

Disclosure of some western governments ' spying on their own citizens and other countries has created great controversy in the country and is considered as one of the major violations of human rights. After disclosure of government surveillance programs in America and Britain, it was fouded that France government is also spying on its citizen's privacy. This was exposed by the French newspaper, Le Monde. According to this newspaper, the French government spied on its citizens informations through a plan called " Prism French". The DGSE intelligence agancy, the General Directorate for External Security, systematically collect the exchanged informations between computers and telephone devices. This include conversations, computer datas, e-mails, text messages, and informations in social network pages like Facebook and Twitter , which have been observed in communications between users inside and outside the France. According to experts, this has been done for many years. In the framework of this spy plan, that when and with who have people been in contact with , have a particular importance. French people, after the disclosure of the spying, realized that the private 

  • سید احمد حسینی ماهینی

Human Rights In France

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